Gendered language -> gendered economic outcomes

A new paper by Jakiela and Ozier sounds like an insane amount of data work to classify 4,336 languages by whether they gender nouns. For example, in French, a chair is feminine – la chaise.

They find, across countries:

  • Gendered language = greater gaps in labor force participation between men and women (11.89 percentage point decline in female labor force participation)
  • Gendered language = “significantly more regressive gender norms … on the magnitude of one standard deviation”

Within-country findings from Kenya, Niger, Nigeria, and Uganda – countries with sufficient and distinct in-country variation in language type – further show statistically significant lower educational attainment for women who speak a gendered language.

(Disclaimer: The results aren’t causal, as there are too many unobserved variables that could be at play here.)

As the authors say: “individuals should reflect upon the social consequences of their linguistic choices, as the nature of the language we speak shapes the ways we think, and the ways our children will think in the future.”